Happy New Year Canada!

2017 is a special year for Canadian history buffs, as it marks 150 years since Confederation.  All sorts of special celebrations are planned throughout the coming year.

You can read about some of the official planned festivities here.

Check here for a database of community and volunteer projects.

Library and Archives Canada will be informing us of a daily “today-in-history vignette highlighting a significant event that shaped our society” at http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/onthisday/Pages/introduction.aspx

As the title of blog suggests, and my posts confirm, I am fascinated with the historical and social events that surrounded the lives of our ancestors.  Whether blogging about the first Girardin ancestor, Olivier Le Tardif who was in New France by 1621 (read about him here), our Hogue ancestor James McMillan, Chief Factor with HBC, who traveled with the explorer David Thompson (read his story here), our Napoleonic soldier Jean Baptiste Bernardin, who arrived on our shores via the War of 1812 (his story is here), or the fascinating story of our Metis ancestor, Margaret/Marguerite Taylor, country wife of Sir George Simpson, and the person whose story ignited my passion for genealogy, I remain in awe of the fortitude and courage shown by our ancestors, as they built their lives in this country we call home.

As the festivities of Canada 150 unfold, I hope to share more stories that make up our history.

Happy New Year everyone!

 

 

Ville-Marie

A newspaper article caught my eye this morning.

“After years of research, officials at Montreal’s archaeology and history museum say they’re now able to pinpoint the precise location of the city’s first European settlement.”

The settlement was known as Ville-Marie and, of course, some of our ancestors were there!  I have blogged about them  before.  See here and here.

You can read more about this discovery at CBC.

 

 

Not really Hogues?

This post may be one of the most surprising entries on this blog. For a long time I believed that Pierre Hogue and Jeanne Theodore were our ancestors. Many old genealogies list them as the parents of Francois Hogue, our direct ancestor. Turns out that Jeanne is the mother of Francois, but Pierre is not the father!

This fact was discovered by two researchers who made an exhaustive search of church records and published their findings in a journal. I found this information when I started using PRDH to recheck my previous research. They had a note about a journal article “Jean, Not Auber, Not Hogue, but Amelot” published in the Oct. 2007 issue of Michigan’s Habitant Heritage by Thomas George and JoEllen St. Aubin, which I ordered from the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan.

So here is some background. Pierre was the first Hogue to arrive in New France, sometime before January 26, 1672, when he is a witness in Montreal at a marriage. Pierre was born around 1648 in Notre-Dame de Bellifontaine, Picardie, France. On the occasion of his first marriage he declared that his father was Jean Hogue and his mother was Nicole Dubuc.

This first marriage in 1672 was a very interesting one. It was to Marie Madeleine Catherine Nachita, a woman from the Potawatomi Nation, a tribe that lived in what is now Michigan. She had been educated, and cared for, by Margaret Bourgeoys, whom I’ve mentioned before. There’s a possibility that Marie Madeleine Catherine had been a prisoner of the Iroquois at some point. In the book The Pearl of Troyes, or Reminiscenses of the Early Days of Ville-Marie published in 1878 by the Congregation de Notre Dame de Montreal, we read:

“the young girls dowry consisted of the funds given by the Princess of Conti [a French benefactor of Margaret Bourgeoys]; Mr. Zachary Du Puy, Major of the garnison stationed at Ville-Marie, gave her a dwelling house, to which was attached a large garden and a poultry yard, Mr. Dollier de Casson of saint Sulpice, gave furniture and kitchen utensils to the value of 130 livres”.

That sounds like a pretty good start in life, given the times. Some important persons attended the wedding including Charles D’Ailleboust and his wife Catherine Legardeur.

Pierre and Marie Madeleine Catherine had two sons, Claude and Pierre. Turns out that baby Pierre’s godmother was Jeanne Hunault, one of our Girardin ancestors. The marriage was a brief one, Marie Madeleine Catherine dying in September of 1676. Having young children, Pierre quickly married Jeanne Theodore in November of the same year. She had been born in 1663 in Montreal, making her 13 at the time of this marriage.

Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967), Montreal, Basilique Notre-Dame 1643-1680, Registres Photographies au greffe de Montreal, stamped page 82, image 164 of 277, accessed on ancestry.ca 22 Apr 2014

Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1967), Montreal, Basilique Notre-Dame 1643-1680, Registres Photographies au greffe de Montreal, stamped page 82, image 164 of 277, accessed on ancestry.ca 22 Apr 2014

I wrote about her parents Michel Theodore dit Gilles and Jacqueline Larange  here.

Pierre and Jeanne lived in Montreal and would end up having 7 children all together, six of which survived. In the census of 1681 they are living with Pierre’s son Pierre and their son Jean Baptiste. I don’t know what happened to Pierre’s son Claude. His son Pierre drowned at the age of 22.

Enter Jacques Amelot dit Sanspeur, a soldier who arrived from France in 1694. He was a 27 year old sergeant in the company of Monsieur Levasseur. This may have been a company sent to rebuild the fortifications of Quebec City. Jacques was born around 1667 in the Normandy area of France. At some point, we don’t know where or when, he met Jeanne and she gave birth on November 17, 1694 to Amelot’s son Francois! He was baptized as Francois Amelot, and Jeanne’s brother-in-law Francois Dormet was godfather.

Hogue Amelot Francois baptism

Pierre raised him as his own, and Francois took the Hogue name. To confuse things even more, Pierre and Jeanne already had a son Francois, born in 1687. (What was she thinking?) Pierre and Jeanne went on to have another daughter in 1703. Many old genealogies mistakenly list one Francois who marries twice.

As the journal article explained, when “our” Francois married Angelique Coiteux in 1716, the names of his parents are not given. However, at the baptism of their son Joseph Amable in 1734, the “other” Francois is present and listed as uncle of the child. Checking baptism and marriage records for Francois and Angelique’s family, I find that uncle Francois is present at several of these occasions.

Hogue, Joseph Amable baptism1734
Although Jacques and Jeanne met in Montreal, Jacques soon was transferred to Quebec city, so it is very unlikely that he had any involvement in Francois’ life. Jacques married Angelique Godin in 1698, who turns out to be the daughter of Girardin ancestors Charles Godin and Marie Boucher! One of the many examples of intertwined French-Canadian roots! And here’s another. Two of Pierre and Jeanne’s children married siblings of Angelique Coiteux, “our” Francois’ wife.

Jacques Amelot and Angelique Godin had 10 children. After Angelique Godin’s death, he married again. Jacques died in 1729. Pierre Hogue died in 1725 and Jeanne Theodore in 1730.

Francois Hogue and Angelique Coiteux, our ancestors, had 13 children, seven of whom died as children. Francois died at the age of 66 in 1760 in the parish of St. Vincent de Paul. Angelique died at the age of 81 in the same parish in 1779.

So, for the record, here is the Hogue male line from Amelot to Pépère:
1-Jacques AMELOT dit SANSPEUR (abt 1667-1729)
+Jeanne THEODORE (1663-1730)
2-Francois HOGUE “AMELOT” (1694-1760)
+Marie Angelique COITEUX (1697-1779)
3-Joseph Amable HOGUE (1734-between 1799 and 1806)
+Marie-Josephe BELANGER (1740-1775)
4-Louis Amable HOGUE (1769-?)
+Marie Anne LABELLE (1776-?)
5-Louis Amable HOGUE (1796-1858)
+Marguerite TAYLOR (1805-1885)
6-Thomas HOGUE (1840-1924)
+Philomene MCMILLAN (1848-1923)
7-Thomas Joseph HOGUE (1879-1955)

 

So, there it is.  Our surname should actually be Amelot dit Sanspeur, but I don’t think anyone’s going to change it now!

The Lesieur Connection

This post will be about our Girardin ancestors, the Lesieur family, and it is a rather tangled story.

Charles Lesieur arrived in New France around 1670. He was born in Ozeville, Normandy. In 1671 he married Francoise de Lafond, the thirteen year old niece of Pierre Boucher, Governor of Trois-Rivières. (see my previous post about this family here). Needless to say, that was a very advantageous marriage, and Charles became a wealthy landowner, a notary, and a “procureur fiscal” (financial attorney) . He sometimes went by the “dit” name of Lapierre. He and Francoise had nine children and settled in Batiscan. Unfortunately he died at the age of 50 in 1697, leaving Francoise with a family whose youngest was only two years old. She remarried six years later, but did not have any more children. Francoise died in 1717 and was buried in Montreal.

We are descended from three of Charles and Francoise’s children, Charles, Joseph and Francoise.

First is Charles Lesieur, the younger. A few years after his father’s death, Charles and his brother Julien were granted the seigneury of Grosbois-Est , which would become the town of Yamachiche. Charles married Marie Charlotte Rivard dite Loranger in 1700, and they had seven children, including our ancestor Pierre, who married Genevieve Sicard dite Derive in 1746. Pierre was co-seigneur of Yamachiche, as noted on this burial record in 1761. Genevieve was pregnant with the last of their seven children when Pierre died. The child died the day it was born. A year later, Genevieve married again, this time to a man with almost the same name, Pierre Lesieur dit Duchesne! He was a first cousin, once removed, of her deceased husband.

Pierre had a brother, also called Charles, NOT our direct ancestor, who was involved in the fur trade.
In Heather Devine’s book The People who Own Themselves: Aboriginal Ethnogenesis in a Canadian Family we learn:

“The Lesieurs were a prominent family who had held the seigneury of Yamachiche, near Trois-Rivières, Quebec for several generations. Charles Lesieur, the seigneur of Yamachiche during much of the eighteenth century, presided over a large family active in the fur trade. One of his sons, Toussaint, was one of the earliest Canadien traders in the Athabasca region, an associate of Peter Pond, and later Benjamin and Joseph Frobisher. However, two other Lesieur sons, Francois and Joseph, chose to seek their fortune in Missouri…they were credited as the official founders of the trading post and satellite community later known as New Madrid.”

Secondly, we have Joseph Lesieur, born in 1688, who was also involved in the fur trade. He was trading in the Illinois and Wisconsin area and married an Illinois Indian, Madeleine Adouin. They had one child, a son, Jean Baptiste, born around 1721 in Pays-d’en-Haut. (That refers to the country upriver from the colony of New France, i.e. present day Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan and along the Mississippi.)  Joseph was killed by Indians in 1723 at the age of 34. F.L. Desaulniers who compiled a book Les vieilles familles d’Yamachiche: vingt-cinq genealogies  in 1900, tells us of the existence of a letter from the Jesuit Father DeKereben giving details of the death of Joseph and of Jean-Baptiste Lafond.

I do not know what happened to Madeleine, but by 1747 her son Jean Baptiste is in Yamachiche getting married to HIS FIRST COUSIN Francoise Rivard dite Bellefeuille! Tragically, this couple both died the same day, in 1756, possibly of smallpox, leaving behind three young children, ages 8, 5, and 3. Presumably they were raised by other members of the Lesieur and Rivard families.

Thirdly, we come to Francoise Lesieur, born in 1695, and married to Louis Joseph Rivard dit Loranger. They had eight children . When Louis Joseph died, Francoise was left, as her mother had been, with a family whose youngest was only two years old! She did not remarry.  (Louis Joseph was the brother of Marie Charlotte who married Charles Lesieur the younger). The Lesieur and Rivard families were very closely linked, which I touched on in another post (here).

Charles, Joseph and Francoise are all ancestors of Joseph Baptiste Lesieur dit Lapierre and Madeleine Lesieur, who are Mémère’s great-great-grandparents.

If you are thoroughly confused by now, here’s our descent:
1-Charles LESIEUR (1647-1697)
+Francoise DE LAFOND (1658-1717)
2-Charles Julien LESIEUR (1674-1739)
+Marie Charlotte RIVARD dit LORANGER (1680-1744)
3-Pierre LESIEUR (1700-1761)
+Genevieve SICARD dite DERIVE (1728-1798)
4-Madeleine LESIEUR (1756-1841)
+Joseph Baptiste LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1751-1813)

2-Joseph LESIEUR (1688-1723)
+Madeleine ADOUIN (?-?)
3-Jean Baptiste LESIEUR (bef 1721-1756)
+Francoise RIVARD dite BELLEFEUILLE (bef 1727-1756)
4-Joseph Baptiste LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1751-1813)
+Madeleine LESIEUR (1756-1841)

2-Francoise LESIEUR (8 Sep 1695-1758)
+Louis Joseph RIVARD dit LORANGER (1684-1740)
3-Francoise RIVARD dite BELLEFEUILLE (bef 1727-1756)
+Jean Baptiste LESIEUR (bef 1721-1756)
4-Joseph Baptiste LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1751-1813)
+Madeleine LESIEUR (1756-1841)
5-Josephte LESIEUR (1778-1864)
+Charles GIRARDIN (1773-1853)
6-Paul GIRARDIN (1804-1878)
+Marie Louise BERNARDIN (1824-1912)
7-Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
+Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
8-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

 

 

My Filles du Roi Certificate and Pin

In a previous post, I mentioned that there are 34 Filles du Roi in my Hogue/Girardin ancestry. Recently I applied to the American-French Genealogical Society  for a certificate authenticating my descent from one of these brave women. Although this blog is dedicated to my paternal ancestors, I decided to apply for the certificate based on one of my maternal ancestors, Marie Jeanne Toussaint.
Here is my certificate.

img005

And my pin.

DSC01105
And here’s my descent:
1-Marie Jeanne TOUSSAINT (abt 1652-1708)
+Noel CARPENTIER (abt 1643-1728)
2-Noel CARPENTIER dit NOEL (1697-1788)
+Marie Anne DENIAU (1698-?)
3-Noel CARPENTIER dit NOEL (1726-1756)
+Marie Louise Josephe COTTENOIR dite PREVILLE (1727-1802)
4-Marie Josephe CARPENTIER dit NOEL (1754-1822)
+Michel Ignace BRISSET (1749-1817)
5-Charlotte BRISSET (1779-1808)
+Jean Baptiste HUBERT (1775-?)
6-Josephte HUBERT (1801-?)
+Joseph LAPERRIERE (1799-1861)
7-Marie Sara LAPERRIERE (1840-1904)
+Eugene GIRARD (1843-1930)
8-Marie Anne GIRARD (1881-1975)
+Georges VAILLANCOURT (1869-1935)
9-Madeleine Bibian VAILLANCOURT (1916-2006)
+Joseph Thomas Modeste HOGUE (1909-1972)
10-Mary Jacqueline HOGUE
More frames on the wall of my genealogy “office”!

 

The census of 1666

In 1666, Jean Talon, newly-appointed Intendant of New France, ordered the first census of New France to be taken. Of course, this was a count of only the European population in the colony, not the native population.

The total population of settlers is usually presented as 3215. However, Quebec historian Marcel Trudel, in his book La population du Canada en 1666: recensement reconstitute, puts the number at 4219. I believe that is much more likely. He uses an analysis of records that show people for whom we have church and civil records that prove their residence in New France at that time, but who do not appear in the official record.

I have been able to find 145 of our Hogue/Girardin ancestors in the official census. Our 13 Carnigan soldiers weren’t included, soldiers being considered “transients”. Plus, I have identified 31 people that records show were in the country, but are missing from the official census. That gives us 189 ancestors. No matter which figure you use, our ancestors counted for about 4 to 5 % of the population.  (Plus we have at least 16 ancestors who had come to New France and died BEFORE this census was taken!)

Stats Can tells us:
“Talon conducted his census on the de jure principale – that is, counting people where they normally reside. And he did much of the enumeration himself, going door-to-door. Talon’s census recorded everyone in the colony by name and included age, occupation, marital status, and relationship to the head of the family in which they lived.”

Below is a digital image from Library and Archives Canada
for the 1666 Recensement du Canada. It shows our Hogue ancestors Zacharie Cloutier, Marie Madeleine Emard, and Barbe Cloutier,  along with Barbe’s siblings Rene, Xaintes, Genevieve, Marie, another Marie and Charles. They are living in Beaupre, and Zacharie is described as a carpenter and habitant.

Page from the 1666 New France census for Beaupré Source: Library and Archives Canada/Fonds des Colonies/ DAFCAOM03_G1_460_18R /P. 35

Page from the 1666 New France census for Beaupré
Source: Library and Archives Canada/Fonds des Colonies/ DAFCAOM03_G1_460_18R /P. 35

 

My analysis of the official 1666 census shows that our ancestors made up 71 family groups, including 6 widows. The majority of the men are listed as habitants. There is a common misconception that a habitant in New France was a farmer. To quote Suzanne Boivin Sommerville, writing in the magazine Késsinnimek – Roots – Racines:

“In reality, a habitant was an inhabitant of New France who had chosen to remain and be a free citizen, to pursue whatever occupation or trade that became available.”

13 men are not living with their own families, but are listed as domestics or other trades. These men were probably engagés who had signed contracts to come to New France to work.

Among the occupations listed for the men (women of course are only listed as wife, widow or daughter) we have:

1 Royal Judge (Michel Leneuf du Herisson)
4 carpenters
3 masons
1 cabinet maker
1 salt maker
1 cook/baker
1 brick maker
1 tanner
1 hatter
1 weaver
1 tailor
1 cobbler
1 shoemaker
1 toolmaker

1666…348 years ago.

189 people.

How deep are roots go back!

 

 

 

 

But where did they live?

When I first started researching my Quebec ancestors, I puzzled over many of the place names in the church and census records. Where exactly was Château Richer, Batiscan or Rivière des Prairies?  I would “google” the name and find it but, being geographically-challenged; I would then forget exactly where that specific place was when I chanced on the name again!

Then I found Marcel Trudel’s Atlas de la nouvelle-france.  Voila!  It included a wonderful map that showed all the parishes in the three administrative districts of Montreal, Trois Rivières and Quebec. This book was published by Les Presses de l’université  Laval.  I contacted them, and they have very kindly giving me permission to post the map on my blog.

Map 80 – Les divisions administrative (carte tracée par Marcel Trudel) from atlas de la nouvelle-france by Marcel Trudel, published by Les Presses de l’université  Laval, 1968. Posted with permission from the publisher.

Map 80 – Les divisions administrative (carte tracée par Marcel Trudel) from atlas de la nouvelle-france by Marcel Trudel, published by Les Presses de l’université Laval, 1968. Posted with permission from the publisher.

I will also post this map on a page called Maps, which you will find on my sidebar, near the Timeline.

The soldiers arrive

There are many stories to tell about our filles du roi, and I will come back to these women.  However, I am now going to move ahead to the year 1665.  In keeping with the changes that King Louis XIV made in regards to New France, this was the year he sent the Carignan-Salières Regiment of French soldiers to Canada.  As we have seen, Iroquois attacks had been frequent, and the purpose of sending these 1200 troops was to bolster the defense of the colony. I can confirm 13 of these soldiers are our Girardin ancestors, and 9 of them married “Filles du Roi”.

From the online book Canadian Military Heritage, Volume 1 (1000-1754), Chapter 4: The King’s Soldiers, The Carignan, page 49, we see their uniforms.

Soldier of the régiment de Carignan-Salières

Soldier of the régiment de Carignan-Salières

“This French soldier wears the uniform of the régiment de Carignan-Salières, stationed in New France between 1665 and 1668. The uniform was brown with a gray lining that was visible in the upturned sleeves, forming a decorative facing. Buff-coloured and black ribbons decorated the hat and right shoulder, in accordance with the style of the time. The soldiers of the régiment de Carignan-Salières all wore swords and most were armed with muskets, although two hundred had lighter weapons known as fusils. Reconstruction by Francis Back.”

The first task for the soldiers was to build five forts along the Richelieu River, which was the main route taken by the Iroquois. In January of 1666 a force of 300 soldiers and 200 local militia embarked on a campaign (in the middle of winter???) during which they fought no battles, but managed to lose 100 men to cold and hunger.  Not an auspicious start.

A second excursion in the fall was more successful in terms of making the Mohawks aware of the French military presence, and resulted in a temporary peace.  400 of the Carignan-Salières soldiers opted to stay in New France, lured by the land grants and cash that were offered by Jean Talon, the Intendant.

I will tell one soldier’s story now, that of Antoine Chaudillon. He was 24 when he arrived, having been born in Ygrande in central France. He was baptised on July 16, 1641 in Église Saint Martin, a beautiful old church that dates from the 12th century.

Source: By User:Otourly (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Source: By User:Otourly (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

When he arrived, Antoine was a surgeon in the La Varenne Company.  The following year he was transferred to the Saurel Company.  On May 26, 1672 he married Marie Boucher.  I’ve written about both of her grandfathers; Marin Boucher and Pierre Garman dit Picard. After the regiments left, Antoine continued to practice as a surgeon. They had nine children and settled first in Sorel and later in Pointe-aux-Trembles.  .

Antoine was involved on July 2, 1690 in a battle with the Iroquois at Coulee Grou (Rivière des Prairies).   Antoine was one of the men taken prisoner at this battle, and later released.

And, of course, a plaque:

Image with the kind permission of Société Historique Rivière-des-Prairies

Image with the kind permission of Société Historique Rivière-des-Prairies

Marie was pregnant at the time of the battle, but Antoine must have been released by February 11, 1691, when he is noted as being present at the baptism of his daughter.

Antoine died at the age of 66, and Marie at 61.

Antoine rates an entry in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, although it has some errors.

We descend from their firstborn, Catherine who married Francois Neveu as her first husband.  (When he died, Catherine married Jean Charbonneau, brother to one of our Hogue ancestors, Anne Charbonneau.)

Here is our descent:

1-Antoine CHAUDILLON (1641-1707)
+Marie BOUCHER (1652-16 Dec 1713)
2-Catherine CHODILLON (abt 1673-1745)
+Francois NEVEU dit LEMON (1666-?)
3-Marie NEVEU dite LEMON (1689-1747)
+Jean Baptiste BANLIER dit LAPERLE (1682-?)
4-Marie Madeleine BANLIER dite LAPERLE (1721-1795)
+Michel LANGEVIN (1718-?)
5-Marie Madeleine LANGEVIN (1749-1822)
+Louis LUSSIER (1749-?)
6-Christophe LUSSIER (1773-?)
+Marie Charlotte BRUNEL (1774-1806)
7-Magdeleine LUSSIER (1795- 1832)
+Charles ALLARD (1787-1862)
8-Joseph Pierre ALLARD (1826-1875)
+Marie BONIN (1827-?)
9-Onesime ALLARD (1852- 1896)
+Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851- 1929)
10-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878- 1979)

Our first fille du roi…maybe?

In my last post, I mentioned that we count 34 filles du roi or King’s Daughters in our Hogue and Girardin ancestry. The first filles du roi arrived in Quebec on September 22, 1663.  They had sailed from La Rochelle, France on the ship, l’Aigle d’Or.  There were 38 of these women.  Of course they were not sailing alone; they were with soldiers, engagés, and crew members.  It was an arduous journey, and perhaps as many as a third of the passengers died at sea!

There are no passenger lists for this journey, which makes it difficult to determine precisely who were these first 38 brave women. Our ancestor, Catherine Fievre is listed in many sources as being one of these first filles du roi.  I was very excited to hear that, but I have learned recently, from a much more experienced researcher, that she may, in fact, have arrived in 1662.

Celebrations were held in the summer of 2013 in Quebec, marking the 350th anniversary of the arrival of the first filles du roi. You can see some pictures of the celebrations here.

While we don’t know if Catherine was officially a fille du roi, we do know that her mother had been widowed and remarried in France. Catherine was baptised November 19, 1646 in St-Andre, Poitou, France. Although we don’t know for sure when she immigrated, we do know that she signed a marriage contract on October 31, 1663 in Quebec and was married on November 10th  at the age of 17.

She married Charles Allaire, an engagé who had been in the colony since 1658.  They had 13 children, the first two apparently dying very young. Charles and Catherine settled in Ste-Famille, L’Île-d’Orléans.  Notarial records show that Charles died before February 20, 1691.  Catherine was left with several young children to raise alone, the youngest being only four years old, and our ancestor Etienne being seven. She did not remarry and died June 13, 1709 at the age of 63.

And once again, we have a plaque.

Allaire plaque

Catherine and Charles are Girardin ancestors, and we descend from two of their grandchildren:

1- Catherine FIEVRE (1646-1709)
+Charles ALLAIRE DALLAIRE (1637-?)
2-Etienne ALLAIRE DALLAIRE (1683-?)
+Marie Anne BILODEAU (1685-1731)
3-Pierre ALLAIRE DALLAIRE (1718-1780)
+Marie Louise EMERY CODERRE (1718-1792)
4-Marie Marguerite Rosalie ALAIRE (1755-1825)
+Pierre Francois ALLARD (1746-?)
5-Charles ALLARD (1787-1862)
+Magdeleine LUSSIER (1795-1832)
6-Joseph Pierre ALLARD (1826-1875)
+Marie BONIN (1827-?)
7-Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
+Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
8-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)
3-Marie ALLAIRE DALLAIRE (1708-1776)
+Francois DUPRE (abt 1703-1776)
4-Francois DUPRE (1731-?)
+Marie Catherine GUERTIN (1745-1835)
5-Pierre DUPRE (1773-1858)
+Marie Amable LETARTE (1784-?)
6-Marie Amable DUPRE (1801-?)
+Jean Baptiste BONIN (1799-?)
7-Marie BONIN (1827-?)
+Joseph Pierre ALLARD (1826-1875)
8-Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
+Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
9-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

1663

Our European ancestors continued to come to New France, and although I have by no means exhausted their stories, I am going to move along a little in our family history.  I promise to come back to these pioneers later.

The year 1663 in New France was noteworthy for three reasons.  First, it was the year that saw a very important change in how the colony was governed. Up until this time, the colony had been administered mainly by the fur-trading companies such as the Compagnie des Cent-Associés and the Communauté des Habitants. In 1663 King Louis XIV of France, aka the Sun king, brought the colony directly under royal rule. A new form of administration was now adopted that gave power to the Governor, the Intendant and the Bishop.

The population was very small, about 2500 people (not including the natives). Attacks from the Iroquois, as we have seen, were a constant threat.  Many seigneuries had been granted, but not settled, and the settlements that did exist were scattered.

Secondly, to solve the problem of a small population, the year 1663 saw the beginning of the arrival of the filles du roi or “King’s daughters”. These were single women, many of them orphans, who were recruited for the specific purpose of emigrating to the colony to marry. They were given free passage, a basic trousseau that included some personal supplies, and temporary accommodation in New France until they married. Some were also given a dowry that was more likely to be “in kind” than in cash. After the marriage the family received a bull, a cow and some other supplies.

These women were given the opportunity to choose their husbands, and in fact “interview” them.  They had the right to refuse a suitor.   You can read more here.  Some 770 women arrived under this program between 1663 and 1673.  34 of these women are Hogue or Girardin ancestors. I will certainly be sharing some of their stories.

And of course, we have a plaque.

Filles du Roi

The third notable event of 1663 was the Charlevoix earthquake which struck on February 5th, and was felt along the entire eastern part of North America.  You can read a scientific summary of it here.  It is estimated to have been a magnitude of between 7 and 8.  Aftershocks were felt until the following July or August.

You can also read a description by Father Jerome Lalemant in The Jesuit Relations.

earthquake1663

I estimate that about a hundred of our ancestors were in New France at this time, and would have experienced this earthquake.  One ancestor, Marie Therese Hunault, whom I wrote about here, was born on February 12th, seven days after the first shock.