The soldiers arrive

There are many stories to tell about our filles du roi, and I will come back to these women.  However, I am now going to move ahead to the year 1665.  In keeping with the changes that King Louis XIV made in regards to New France, this was the year he sent the Carignan-Salières Regiment of French soldiers to Canada.  As we have seen, Iroquois attacks had been frequent, and the purpose of sending these 1200 troops was to bolster the defense of the colony. I can confirm 13 of these soldiers are our Girardin ancestors, and 9 of them married “Filles du Roi”.

From the online book Canadian Military Heritage, Volume 1 (1000-1754), Chapter 4: The King’s Soldiers, The Carignan, page 49, we see their uniforms.

Soldier of the régiment de Carignan-Salières

Soldier of the régiment de Carignan-Salières

“This French soldier wears the uniform of the régiment de Carignan-Salières, stationed in New France between 1665 and 1668. The uniform was brown with a gray lining that was visible in the upturned sleeves, forming a decorative facing. Buff-coloured and black ribbons decorated the hat and right shoulder, in accordance with the style of the time. The soldiers of the régiment de Carignan-Salières all wore swords and most were armed with muskets, although two hundred had lighter weapons known as fusils. Reconstruction by Francis Back.”

The first task for the soldiers was to build five forts along the Richelieu River, which was the main route taken by the Iroquois. In January of 1666 a force of 300 soldiers and 200 local militia embarked on a campaign (in the middle of winter???) during which they fought no battles, but managed to lose 100 men to cold and hunger.  Not an auspicious start.

A second excursion in the fall was more successful in terms of making the Mohawks aware of the French military presence, and resulted in a temporary peace.  400 of the Carignan-Salières soldiers opted to stay in New France, lured by the land grants and cash that were offered by Jean Talon, the Intendant.

I will tell one soldier’s story now, that of Antoine Chaudillon. He was 24 when he arrived, having been born in Ygrande in central France. He was baptised on July 16, 1641 in Église Saint Martin, a beautiful old church that dates from the 12th century.

Source: By User:Otourly (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Source: By User:Otourly (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

When he arrived, Antoine was a surgeon in the La Varenne Company.  The following year he was transferred to the Saurel Company.  On May 26, 1672 he married Marie Boucher.  I’ve written about both of her grandfathers; Marin Boucher and Pierre Garman dit Picard. After the regiments left, Antoine continued to practice as a surgeon. They had nine children and settled first in Sorel and later in Pointe-aux-Trembles.  .

Antoine was involved on July 2, 1690 in a battle with the Iroquois at Coulee Grou (Rivière des Prairies).   Antoine was one of the men taken prisoner at this battle, and later released.

And, of course, a plaque:

Image with the kind permission of Société Historique Rivière-des-Prairies

Image with the kind permission of Société Historique Rivière-des-Prairies

Marie was pregnant at the time of the battle, but Antoine must have been released by February 11, 1691, when he is noted as being present at the baptism of his daughter.

Antoine died at the age of 66, and Marie at 61.

Antoine rates an entry in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, although it has some errors.

We descend from their firstborn, Catherine who married Francois Neveu as her first husband.  (When he died, Catherine married Jean Charbonneau, brother to one of our Hogue ancestors, Anne Charbonneau.)

Here is our descent:

1-Antoine CHAUDILLON (1641-1707)
+Marie BOUCHER (1652-16 Dec 1713)
2-Catherine CHODILLON (abt 1673-1745)
+Francois NEVEU dit LEMON (1666-?)
3-Marie NEVEU dite LEMON (1689-1747)
+Jean Baptiste BANLIER dit LAPERLE (1682-?)
4-Marie Madeleine BANLIER dite LAPERLE (1721-1795)
+Michel LANGEVIN (1718-?)
5-Marie Madeleine LANGEVIN (1749-1822)
+Louis LUSSIER (1749-?)
6-Christophe LUSSIER (1773-?)
+Marie Charlotte BRUNEL (1774-1806)
7-Magdeleine LUSSIER (1795- 1832)
+Charles ALLARD (1787-1862)
8-Joseph Pierre ALLARD (1826-1875)
+Marie BONIN (1827-?)
9-Onesime ALLARD (1852- 1896)
+Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851- 1929)
10-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878- 1979)

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A widow and her daughters

Today’s story is about a widow who came to New France with her two daughters.  All three of these women were filles à marier.  Marie Madeleine Cousteau  was born about 1607, married in 1626 to Etienne St. Pair and bore six children. By 1639 her husband had died, and by 1647 four of her children had also.  Facing poverty, and in hopes of a better life,  she embarked with her twenty year old daughter Jeanne and her thirteen year old daughter Catherine.

Marie Madeleine quickly found a husband in Emery Cailleteau. They did not have any children, but her life was drastically changed once again when Emery was killed by the Iroquois on June 2, 1653 near the fort at Cap-de-La-Madeleine (in the Trois Rivieres area). We have documentation  in The Jesuit Relations:

Calteau

In November of that same year, Marie Madeleine found another husband, Claude Houssard dit le Petit Claude, who had come to New France as an engage in 1642, and was about nine years younger than Marie Madeleine. He was one of the early pioneers in Trois Rivieres and there is a street, Rue Houssart, named after him.  Their marriage lasted for 36 years, until Claude’s death in 1689.

At some point, Claude had clearly descended into dementia.  Peter Gagne, in his book Before the King’s Daughters, quotes an article by Raymond Douville (Mémoires de la Société Généalogique Canadienne-Française, 1:4, 266-270), that explains Marie Madeleine gave land to one of her grandsons in return for his taking care of Claude because of

“the impossibility…with regards to the care that must be taken of her said husband, who is devoid of reason and in utter madness, of whom great care must be taken to clean up every mess which may be imagined and it being necessary to see to the comfort of this said man for the time that it pleases God to let him live.”

Apparently Marie Madeleine had incurred many debts in her desire to care for Claude. Her relatives helped her out by paying these debts.  After Claude died, Marie Madeleine lived another two years, dying at the age of about 84. One hope these last two years were peaceful ones for her.

Meanwhile, in 1649, Marie Madeleine’s daughter Catherine, not a direct ancestor, married Mathurin Guillet . On August 18, 1652 tragedy struck when Mathurin was killed by the Iroquois. From The Jesuit Relations, Vol. 37

 “On the 18th, 4 frenchmen were attacked by 8 Iroquois canoes, between 3 Rivers and the Cape; Maturin Guillet and La Boujonnier were killed on the spot. Plassez, a surgeon, and Rochereau, were taken away as captives.”

Catherine would then marry Nicolas Rivard dit Lavigne.

So now we come to Marie Madeleine’s daughter Jeanne, who had also come as a fille à marier. In 1648 she married Pierre Guillet dit Lajeunesse, brother to Mathurin, a master woodworker and carpenter who had come to New France around 1642. They also settled in the Trois Rivieres area, and would have a family of 11 children. One imagines his skills were in high demand in the colony.

Jeanne and Pierre had a daughter Marie Madeleine who married Robert Rivard dit Loranger, brother to Nicolas, (yes she married her aunt’s brother-in-law).  Robert is one of the names on a plaque remembering those immigrants baptized at l’église Saint-Aubin de Tourouvre, France.

plaque_tourouvre_baptises

Robert farmed in Batiscan, near Trois Rivieres, but the adventure and possible riches of the fur trade tempted him.  In 1689 he signed a contract with La Compagnie du Nord to trade in the area of the Abitibi lakes and Temiscamingue.  In 1695 he was part of the Compagnie Royale that traded furs. Several of his sons also involved themselves in the fur trade.

Here is where our lines get tangled, because we descend from three of Robert and Marie Madeleine’s children, Claude, Marie Charlotte, and Louis Joseph.

Claude married Catherine Roy dit Chatellerault and he was involved in the fur trade. His name is on the Cadillac Convoy plaque I’ve posted before, that honours the men who accompanied Antoine Lamother, Sieur de Cadillac, to Detroit on July 24, 1701.

Photo with permission of the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan

Photo with permission of the French-Canadian Heritage Society of Michigan

Marie Charlotte and Louis Joseph both married into the Lesieur family, who are a topic for another post.

So now I will attempt to explain our complicated descent from these ancestors. First we have:

1-Marie Madeleine COUSTEAU/COUTEAU (abt 1606-1691)
+Etienne ST. PAIR (?-?)
2-Jeanne ST. PAIR (1627-?)
+Pierre GUILLET dit LAJEUNESSE (abt 1628-1695)
3-Marie Madeleine GUILLET (1650-1736)
+Robert RIVARD dit LORANGER (1638-1699)

Then we find we descend from three of their children until we arrive at Charles Girardin and Josephte Lesieur:
4-Claude RIVARD dit LORANGER (bef 1666-1736)
+Marie Catherine ROY dite CHATELLERAULT (bef 1673-1753)
5-Nicolas RIVARD dit LORANGER (1698-1760)
+Antoinette DUBORD dit LAFONTAINE (1715-1772)
6-Genevieve RIVARD dite LORANGER (1744-1810)
+Augustin GIRARDIN (1741-1810)
7-Charles GIRARDIN (1773-1853)
+Josephte LESIEUR (1778-1864)

4-Marie Charlotte RIVARD dite LORANGER (1680-1744)
+Charles Julien LESIEUR (1674-1739)
5-Pierre LESIEUR (1700-1761)
+Genevieve SICARD DE RIVE (1728-1798)
6-Madeleine LESIEUR (1756-1841)
+Joseph Baptiste LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1751-1813)
7-Josephte LESIEUR (1778-1864)
+Charles GIRARDIN (1773-1853)

4-Louis Joseph RIVARD dit LORANGER (1684-1740)
+Francoise LESIEUR (1695-1758)
5-Francoise RIVARD dite BELLEFEUILLE (bef 1727-1756)
+Jean Baptiste LESIEUR-COULOMB (bef 1721-1756)
6-Joseph Baptiste LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1751-1813)
+Madeleine LESIEUR (1756-1841)
7-Josephte LESIEUR (1778-1864)
+Charles GIRARDIN (1773-1853)

And then we find the final connection:
8-Paul GIRARDIN (1804-1878)
+Marie Louise BERNARDIN (1824-1912)
9-Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
+Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
10-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

Whew!  Clear as mud.

The Grande Recrue, part 3

Hogue ancestor Michel Theodore dit Gilles also came as part of the Grande Recrue of 1653.  He was a mason, paver and laborer and was already a widower at the age of 22 when he arrived in Montreal.  On September 16, 1658 he married fille à marier Jacqueline Lagrange who was 17.

Six filles à marier were married that same day. Maisonneuve was once again a witness. Michel and Jacqueline had two daughters, Marie-Barbe and our ancestor Jeanne.

Michel was a member of the 16th squadron of the militia of Sainte-Famille, formed for the protection of Montreal.  Unfortunately, on May 4, 1664, he was killed by the Iroquois at Longue-Pointe when returning from a hunting expedition.

Theodore Michel b 1631 burial 1664

After his death, an inventory was taken by the Montreal notary Bénigne Basset. His belongings included, among other things, two blankets, two small sheets, four bushels of wheat and his firearm.  Oh my, that doesn’t sound like much, does it? My source for this is the book Montréal, 1653: la grande recrue by Michel Langlois as found on Google Books.

Michel’s death left Jacqueline with two children, one aged three and a half years and another only nine months old.  Needless to say, she married again, this time to Laurent Glory dit La Bière. Jacqueline had another seven children with this husband.  He died in 1681 when Jacqueline was pregnant with her last child.

A few months later, Jacqueline married for the last time to Nicolas Ragueneau.  She outlived this husband also, and was buried August 3, 1688 in Montreal.

Here is our descent to Pépère.  Our descent is through their daughter Jeanne, who has a very surprising story to tell, but that is for another post.

1-Michel THEODORE GILLES (1631-1664)
+Jacqueline LAGRANGE (1641-1688)
2-Jeanne THEODORE (1663-1730)
+Jacques AMELOT SANSPEUR (abt 1667-1729)
3-Francois HOGUE AMELOT (1694-1760)
+Marie Angelique COITEUX (1697-1779)
4-Joseph Amable HOGUE (1734-?)
+Marie-Josephe BELANGER (1740-1775)
5-Louis Amable HOGUE (1769-?)
+Marie Anne LABELLE (1776-?)
6-Louis Amable HOGUE (1796-1858)
+Marguerite TAYLOR (1805-1885)
7-Thomas HOGUE (1840-1924)
+Philomene MCMILLAN (1848-1923)
8-Thomas Joseph HOGUE (1879-1955)

The Iroquois Threat

When Champlain came to New France he established trade alliances with the Huron, Algonguin and Montagnais.  In 1609 at the Battle of Ticonderoga, his use of firearms against the Iroquois, enemies of the Huron, succeeded in fostering a long war between the Iroquois Confederacy and the French.  The Iroquois traded with the Dutch in New York and thus obtained their own firearms.  They became an almost constant threat to the colonists at Montreal, Trois Rivières and Quebec. At times they threatened the very existence of the settlements.

Some of our Girardin ancestors experienced this threat in a very direct way.  I will tell three of their stories.

Pierre Lefebvre came to New France around 1642 and settled first  in Trois Rivières and then at Cap-de-La-Madeleine. In 1648 he was captured by the Iroquois.

The Jesuit Relations, Vol. 32, tell us:

“During this whole month of July, several events occurred at 3 rivers which concerned the yroquois, and will be found in the letters among the Archives or in the relation,—among others, the capture of two of our Frenchmen, pierre le Febvre,…and a nephew of Monsieur de la Poterie.

OCTOBER

Of the three yroquois who escaped on the 6th, who were captives at 3 rivers, the one named le berger came back, and brought with him Pierre le febvre, a captive among the yroquois”

So, a happy ending for Pierre.

Pierre married Jeanne Auneau, another fille à marier, who at the time of Pierre’s capture, had an 18-month old son and was pregnant!  One can only imagine how she felt during the three months of his captivity.  They would eventually have seven children.   Pierre was an important person in Trois Rivières, becoming a syndic des habitants (as sort of trustee) in 1658 and a churchwarden in 1663.

Here is our descent from Pierre to Mémère:

1-Pierre LEFEBVRE (1623-bet 1668 and 1670)
+Jeanne AUNEAU (abt 1624-1697)
2-Marie Catherine LEFEBVRE (1648-1705)
+Antoine TROTTIER DESRUISSEAUX (1640-1706)
3-Antoine TROTTIER DESRUISSEAUX dit POMBERT (1681-1733)
+Marie Charlotte Charles MERCEREAU dit LASAVANE (1685-1715)
4-Marie Catherine TROTTIER DESRUISSEAUX dit POMBERT (1708-1788)
+Louis SICARD CARUFEL dit DERIVE (1705-1783)
5-Genevieve SICARD dit DERIVE (1728-1798)
+Pierre LESIEUR (1700-1761)
6-Madeleine LESIEUR (11 Mar 1756-?)
+Joseph LESIEUR dit LAPIERRE (1754- 1813)
7-Josephte LESIEUR (1778-1864)
+Charles GIRARDIN (1773-1853)
8-Paul GIRARDIN (1801-1878)
+Marie Louise BERNARDIN (1824-1912)
9-Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
+Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
10-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

My second story is about Jean Chicot who came to Montreal in 1650.  He was scalped by the Iroquois in 1651 but survived.

In the book Montreal:under the French Regime William Henry Atherton gives this account

“on May 6, 1651 : On this day, Jean Boudard had left his house with a man

named Jean Chicot when suddenly they found themselves surprised. by eight

or ten Iroquois. Chicot ran for safety to a tree recently cut down and hid

himself there, but Boudard, making headlong for his home, met his wife,

Catherine Mercier, not far from it. Asking her whether the dwelling was

open she replied: “No, I have locked it!” “Ah!” cried he, “then it is death

for both of us ! Let us fly at once.” In their flight, the wife could not keep

pace with him and, being left behind, was seized by the Indians. Hearing her

cries the husband returned and attacked them with fisticuffs, so violently that, not

being able to master him otherwise, they massacred him on the spot. The

cries and confusion aroused three of the settlers, Charles Le Moyne, Archambault

and another, who, running to render assistance, were seen falling into an

ambuscade of forty Indians behind the hospital. Discovering their mistake they

made a retreat to the front door of the hospital which luckily was open, having

escaped a brisk fusillade, as Le Moyne well knew by the hole in his hat. With

the captive woman, the Indians who had surprised Boudard then sought the

hiding place of Chicot.  He defended himself with his feet and hands so vigor-

ously that fearing, lest he should be assisted by the Frenchmen they now saw

approaching, they took his scalp, taking a piece of his skull with it. This they

carried with them as a trophy, as well as the head of Boudard, who was com-

monly known as “Grand Jean.” Jean Chicot did not die, however, till nearly

fourteen years later”

In 1662 Jean married Marguerite Maclin, another fille à marier.  She came to New France as an orphan in 1659 and lived under the protection of Marguerite Bourgeoys. Marguerite Bourgeoys, Maisonneuve, and another ancestor, Gilbert Barbier, were witnesses at their wedding on October 23, 1662.

Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), Montreal, Basilique Notre-Dame, 1642-1681, image 131 of 233 accessed on ancestry.ca

Quebec, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), Montreal, Basilique Notre-Dame, 1642-1681, image 131 of 233 accessed on ancestry.ca

Jean and Marguerite were only married for five years before Jean died, leaving Marguerite with two children under four years of age.  She quickly remarried and had another ten children with her new husband.

Here is our descent from Jean Chicot:

1-Jean CHICOT (1627-1667)
+Marguerite MACLIN (abt 1647-1733)
2-Jean Baptiste SICOT dit LALIBERTE (1666-1757)
+Marie Madeleine Anne LAMOUREUX (1680-1758)
3-Marie SICOT DIT LALIBERTE (1698-1738)
+Louis BABIN dit LACROIX (1694-1756)
4-Marie Madeleine Anne BABIN dit LACROIX (1720-1758)
+Charles DAUNAIS dit LAFRENIERE DELAUNAY (1711-1766)
5-Marie Josephe DAUNAIS dit LAFRENIERE DELAUNAY (1742-?)
+Jacques TAILLEFER (1733-1769)
6-Jean-Baptiste TAILLEFER (1765-?)
+Marie Angelique DEBONNE (1766-?)
7-Marie TAILLEFER (1801-1872)
+Jean Baptiste BERNARDIN (1784-1857)
8-Marie Louise BERNARDIN (1824-1912)
+Paul GIRARDIN (1801-1878)
9-Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
+Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
10-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

The last story concerns Pierre Garman dit Picard who came to New France about 1639 with his wife Madeleine Charlot and their two daughters.  They lived in Quebec (city), Trois Rivières and Cap Rouge.  Madeleine died sometime after 1643.

From the Jesuit Relations, Vol. 38:

“June 10, 1653: The Iroquois, having appeared at Cap rouge, kill there françois Boulé, having pierced him with three gunshots,—in the stomach, in the groin, and in the thigh,—and having removed half of his scalp. . . . Besides, they lead away alive Pierre Garman, called “le Picard,” and his son Charles, 8 years old”

Pierre was presumed dead. Some websites claim that the son, Charles, married an Iroquois woman, had one daughter baptized and then disappears from all records. I’ve been unable to prove this one way or another.

And here is our descent from Pierre Garman:

1-Pierre GARMAN dit PICARD (?-10 Jun 1653)
+Madeleine CHARLOT (?-bef 1652)
2-Florence GARMAN (abt 1626-?)
+Francois BOUCHER (1617-bef 1681)
3-Marie BOUCHER (1652-1713)
+Antoine CHAUDILLON (abt 1643-1707)
4-Catherine CHODILLON (abt 1673-1745)
+Francois NEVEU dit LEMON (1666-?)
5-Marie NEVEU dit LEMON (Sep 1689-1747)
+Jean Baptiste BANLIER dit LAPERLE (1682-?)
6-Marie Madeleine BANLIER LAPERLE (1721-1795)
+Michel LANGEVIN (1718-?)
7-Marie Madeleine LANGEVIN (1749-1822)
+Louis LUSSIER (1749-?)
8-Christophe LUSSIER (1773-?)
+Marie Charlotte BRUNEL (1774-1806)
9-Magdeleine LUSSIER (1795-1832)
+Charles ALLARD (1787-1862)
10-Joseph Pierre ALLARD (1826-1875)
+Marie BONIN (1827-?)
11-Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
+Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
12-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

Life was not easy for our early ancestors, and I will have many more stories to tell.