A Napoleonic Soldier

My next posts will be about my Girardin ancestors. I’m starting with the fascinating story of Jean Baptiste Bernardin. He was born to Francois Bernardin and Anne Marguerite d’Autel on January 23, 1784, in the village of Ruaux, in the department of Vosges, in the region of Lorraine, which is in the northeast part of France.

Here’s his baptism record, as shown on the Fichier Origine website.

Baptism of Jean Baptiste Bernardin

Baptism of Jean Baptiste Bernardin

One of his descendants, Professor Charles W. Bernardin of Pennsylvania has written several books about him:

Jean-Baptist and his Hundred Acres, Malvern,
Pennsylvania, 1995, 262 pages, ill.

The Military Career of Jean-Baptist Bernardin,
Malvern, Pennsylvania, 1995, 201 pages, XII pages, ill.

The Vôge: Homeland of Jean-Baptist Bernardin,
Malvern, Pennsylvania, 1995, 236 pages, ill.

I have not been able to track down copies of these books, but only summaries of them. According to the professor’s research, by 1806 Jean Baptiste was a soldier in the 9th Regiment Light Infantry of Napoleon Bonaparte’s army. You’ve heard of Napoleon (if not, read about him here ). And for an entertaining look at the Napoleonic wars, track down the old Sharpe TV series starring Sean Bean!.

Jean Baptiste would probably have been conscripted into the French army, as that was the norm at the time. In 1808 he was transferred to the 33rd Light Infantry Regiment. This regiment fought in Spain and lost at the Battle of Bailen, in July 1808. Almost 18,000 soldiers were taken prisoner, Jean Baptiste among them. Although the Spanish had promised to repatriate them to France, they did not keep their word. Instead, the prisoners were held in “prison hulks”, decommissioned ships anchored in the harbour at Cadiz. According to a notation in the book The Laws of War: Constraints on Warfare in the Western World by Michael Howard et al, only one in ten of the prisoners survived!

After 9 months as a prisoner, Jean Baptiste was offered the opportunity to join the Swiss Regiment de Meuron. This Regiment was originally created to serve under the Dutch in India. They were later transferred to the service of the British (something to do with the Dutch not being able to pay them). The Meurons were fighting for the British in the Peninsular War in Spain. It was not uncommon for prisoners to be recruited for another country’s army. I’m certain that decision was easily made, considering the appalling conditions of the prisoners! Thus, despite the “Swiss” moniker, the Regiment de Meuron was a multi-national unit and included Germans, Italians and many other nationalities.

As a soldier in the Meuron Regiment, Jean Baptiste was sent first to Sicily, and then to Canada to fight for the British against the Americans in the War of 1812 – 1814, arriving in Canada in June of 1814. Interestingly, he fought in the Battle of Plattsburg, where my great-great grandfather Amable Hogue also saw action and was wounded.

Jean Baptiste survived, and must have found Lower Canada, as Quebec was known, amenable, because on February 12, 1816, he married Marie Charlotte Taillefer. Here’s his signature on their marriage record.

signature of Jean Baptiste Bernardin

signature of Jean Baptiste Bernardin

 

When reviewing the marriage, which took place in Montreal at Notre Dame, I realized that two other soldiers from the Meuron Regiment were married that same day, in the same church. They were Francois Sabolle and Pierre Carre, both originally from France. Perhaps they had also been prisoners in Spain.

After the war, the soldiers were given 100 acre land grants if they opted to become citizens. Jean Baptiste settled at Grantham in Quebec. Settlers were required to clear their land, build a cabin and live there for 3 years before they could apply for a patent. Besides farming his land Jean Baptiste was also a tailor. Thus, in 1819 he moved to Nicolet intending to make money as a tailor before returning to Grantham. Unfortunately, by 1822 he was to discover that the British officers in charge of the settlement had decided he had abandoned his property and gave it to someone else! Jean Baptiste petitioned for redress, but it took until 1844 before he was awarded a small amount of money as compensation.

Meanwhile, harsh economic conditions led to the family moving to William-Henry (now known as Sorel) in 1841, and finally settling in Saint-Felix de Kingsey in 1844. Here’s a Google map that shows the places mentioned above. The red blob is Kingsey.

Google map

Google map

 

Marie Charlotte and Jean Baptiste had 13 children, at least three of whom died young.
Jean Baptiste died 16 April 1857 in Kingsey, Quebec. Here’s his burial record.

Burial of Jean Baptiste Bernardin 17 Apr 1857, St-Félix-de-Valois, Kingsey, Lower Canada

Burial of Jean Baptiste Bernardin 17 Apr 1857, St-Félix-de-Valois, Kingsey, Lower Canada

In the 1861 and 1871 censuses, the widowed Marie is living with her daughter Elyse and son-in-law Joseph Hamel. She died May 8, 1872 in Warwick, Quebec. Here’s her burial record.

Burial of Marie Charlotte Taillefer, 8 May 1872, St-Médard, Quebec

Love the fact that French-Canadian records use women’s maiden names!
And here’s our descent from Jean Baptiste to Mémère:

1-Jean Baptiste BERNARDIN (1784-1857)
+Marie Charlotte TAILLEFER (1797-1872)
2-Marie Louise BERNARDIN (1824-1912)
+Paul GIRARDIN (1804-1878)
3-Napoleon GIRARDIN (1851-1929)
+Onesime ALLARD (1852-1896)
4-Marie Emma GIRARDIN (1878-1979)

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A Hogue comes west

In my last blog post I wrote about Francois Hogue and Angelique Coiteux. Now I will follow the Hogue line from Quebec to our first appearance in western Canada.

Francois and Angelique had a son Joseph Amable, born February 5, 1734 in Rivière des Prairies, Quebec. He married Marie Josephe Belanger and they had seven children. Marie Josephe died at the age of 35 and Joseph married again, this time to Marie Josephe Paquet, and they had 14 children. Yes, you read that correctly. Joseph Amable was the father of 21 children! At least 5 of them died in infancy. I have not found a burial record for Joseph, but he was dead by the time his second wife died in 1806.

Our direct ancestor from the first marriage is Louis Amable Hogue born April 28, 1769 and baptized at  St-Vincent-de-Paul-de-l`Ile-Jésus, Laval, Quebec and married to Marie Anne Labelle May 18, 1795. They had at least two children, our ancestor Louis Amable Hogue and another son, Joseph. Again, I have not been able to locate burial records for either Louis or Marie Anne.

Their son, Louis Amable Hogue, usually referred to as just Amable Hogue, was the first Hogue to come west. He was born July 14, 1796 in the same parish as his father,  just north of the island of Montreal. You can see it as number 5 on the map.

Hogue Amable b1796 baptism

Baptism of Louis Amable Hogue 14 Jul 1796 at St-Vincent-de-Paul-de I’lle-Jesus, Laval; Quebec Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), accessed on ancestry.ca

Amable served in the military during the War of 1812. I was very excited when I discovered a document which, at the time, was available for free on the Canadiana website. Unfortunately that is now a subscription website. The document is from The Journals of the House of Assembly of Lower-Canada, from the 21st January, to the 25th March, 1815.
img022
In this document, we find Amable listed as being 18 years old,  of fair complexion with a long face, grey eyes, light brown hair and was 5’5” tall. I have never seen a picture of Amable, but it was exciting to find these details of his appearance!  Amable was a member of the Canadian Chasseurs, under the command of Gerald De Courcy. I found a little bit of background on this unit at the website called 1812: Archive Secrets, which is produced by the Stewart Museum in Montreal

“In September 1812, another battalion of Select Embodied Militia was created for the Montreal area. This Fifth Battalion was soon known as the Devil’s Own because it included a number of lawyers, among them, Louis Lévesque and Louis-Joseph Papineau. Command was given to Lieutenant-Colonel Patrick Murray of the 60th Regiment. In March 1814, the battalion was inspected by Major General Francis de Rottenburg. On his recommendation, George Prevost decided to convert the battalion into a light infantry corps. Some of the officers were replaced. The new commander was the Hon. Gérald de Courcy and the battalion was renamed the Chasseurs Canadiens.

I don’t know what battles Amable fought in, but the document tells us that he was “wounded in the left arm and rendered unfit for service” at Plattsburgh on September 11th, 1814. Unfortunately this was the battle the Americans won.

I’ve found no records indicating what Amable did after the war, although their is evidence he was skilled as a mason. In 1821 he joined the Hudson’s Bay Company in whose service he came west. Here is a link to his record  from HBC Archives.

Amable HBC

Amable was one of Sir George Simpson’s handpicked elite crew of voyageurs that paddled the canoes. Hmmm…guess that arm injury wasn’t too much of a disability!

Amable travelled to the Columbia district with Simpson twice; once in 1824/25 and once in 1828/29. The 1824 trip from York Factory to the mouth of the Columbia River is described by author James Raffan in Emperor of the North: Sir George Simpson and the Remarkable Story of the Hudson’s Bay Company as “the most incredible canoe journey in Canadian history”. It was completed in 84 days, setting a record for the fastest and longest canoe voyage in one season. Interestingly, another ancestor, James McMillan accompanied Simpson on this journey, as did Amable’s future brother-in-law, Tom Taylor.

In 1831 Amable married Margaret Taylor, the ancestor I found in a history book (see my post here).

I’ll continue their story in another post.